American Foreign Policy: Pattern and Process

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Charles W. Kegley  |  Eugene R. Wittkopf  (автори)

 

Издателство:   St. Martin's Press
Език: английски език
Раздел: Социология и политология
Етикети:

международни отношения

американска история и политика

 

Мека корица, голям формат  |  681 стр.  |  921 гр.

(неизползвана, здрава и чиста книга с леко захабен външен вид)

 

*

 

CONTENTS
 
 
I.  ANALYTICAL PERSPECTIVES ON AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
 
1. Persistence and Change in American Foreign Policy: A Thematic Introduction 3
 
Patterns in American Foreign Policy 5 Inferring Patterned Consistency in Foreign Policy 7 From Description to Policy Evaluation and Analysis 9 Suggestions for Further Reading 10
 
2. A Framework for the Analysis of American Foreign Policy: The Many Faces of Causation 11
 
The Sources of American Foreign Policy 12
An Overview of the Sources of American Foreign Policy 17
Putting the Pieces Together: The Multiple Sources of American
Foreign Policy 27 Suggestions for Further Reading 30
 
 
II.  THE PATTERN OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
 
3. The Goals of American Foreign Policy: The Postwar Diplomatic Pattern 35
 
Globalism 36
The American Challenge to International Communism 45
The Containment of Soviet Influence 47
The Postwar Pattern of American Foreign Policy: Alternative
Characterizations of Guiding Premises 68 Suggestions for Further Reading 77
 
4. The Instruments of American Foreign Policy: Arms and National Security 80
 
The Evolution of Strategic Doctrine: "Compellence,"
Deterrence, and Military Preparedness 81 Challenges to SALT and Mutual Assured Destruction 90 Arms and (In)security 101 Suggestions for Further Reading 102
 
5. The Instruments of Global Influence: Military Might and Interventionist Means 105
 
Military Globalism 106
Covert Activity and Intelligence Operations 118 Informal Penetration 125
Power and Purpose: In Pursuit of the National Interest 143 Suggestions for Further Reading 145
 
 
III.  EXTERNAL SOURCES OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
 
6. The International Political System in Transition 149
 
Shifts in the Distribution of Power 150
An International System with New Members: The Third
World 164 The Rise of Nonstate Actors 174
The American Foreign Policy Reaction to a Transformed Postwar
Global Environment 184 Suggestions for Further Reading     187 (
7. The International Political Economy in Transition 188
The First World: Industrialized Nations 189
The Third World: The North-South Dialogue 212
The Second World: The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 233
A Status Quo Power in a World of Change 241 Suggestions for Further Reading 243
 
 
IV.  SOCIETAL SOURCES OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
 
8. The Impact of National Values: Political Culture, Elitism, and Pluralism 247
 
American Society in the Community of Nations: A Deviant
Case? 250 Political Culture and Foreign Policy 253 Democratic Liberalism in Theory and Practice 261 The Impact of Special-Interest Groups on American Foreign
Policy 276 Societal Sources of Foreign Policy Continuity 284 Suggestions for Further Reading 285
 
9. The Impact of Public Opinion, Presidential Elections, and the Mass Media 286
 
Public Opinion as a Societal Source 287 A Public Impact on American Foreign Policy? 305 Presidential Elections and Foreign Policy Change 311 The Mass Media as a Societal Source 315 Societal Sources of American Foreign Policy 328 Suggestions for Further Reading 329
 
 
V.  GOVERNMENTAL SOURCES OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
 
10.  Presidential Preeminence in Foreign Policy Making 333
 
Foreign Affairs and the Constitution 336
The Innermost Circle: The President and His Advisers 339
The National Security Council: Organization and
Evolution 345 Other Executive Office Functions: Managing Economic
Affairs 363 Presidential Preeminence and Presidential Power 368 Suggestions for Further Reading 369
 
11. The Role of Executive Departments and Agencies in Foreign Policy Making 371
 
The Department of State 372
The Department of Defense 382
The Intelligence Community 390
Economic Agencies: Agents of Political Economy 407
The Politics of Policy Making: Retrospective and Prospective
Observations 412 Suggestions for Further Reading 414
 
12. The Role of Congess in Foreign Policy Making 415
 
Past Executive-Congressional Interactions 418 Congress and Foreign Policy 428 The Powers of Congress and Foreign Policy Making 437 Is Congress Either Able or Willing? 458 Suggestions for Further Reading 459
VI. ROLE SOURCES OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
 
13. The Process of Decision Making: Rationality and the Impact of Bureaucratic Organization 463
 
Roles as a Source of Foreign Policy 464 Foreign Policy Making as a Rational Process 466 Rationality and Reality: The Limits to Rational Choice 470 The Case Against Bureaucracies: Characteristics of Foreign Policy
Making by Organizations 479 Policy Consequences of Organizational Decision Making 487 The American Process of Decision Making: A Balance Sheet of
Credits and Debits 506 Suggestions for Further Reading 508
 
 
VII. INDIVIDUALS AS SOURCES OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
 
14. Leader Characteristics and Foreign Policy Performance 513
 
Individuals as a Source of Foreign Policy 514
Some Insights into Leadership Character 516 Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Orientations 526 Limits on the Explanatory Power of Individual Factors 534 The Questionable Utility of the "Great Man" Thesis 544 Suggestions for Further Reading 546
 
 
VIII.  PATTERN AND PROCESS IN AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
 
 
15. The Sources of Change and Changelessness in American Foreign Policy: A Synthesis and Interpretation 549
 
Explaining Foreign Policy: The Sources of a Consistent Postwar Pattern 550
A Comparative Assessment of the Sources of American External
Behavior 559 Crisis: An Intervening Variable? 561 An Additional Caveat: Issues and Issue-Areas 567 Suggestions for Further Reading 571
 
16. After Reagan: The Future of American Foreign Policy 573
 
The Reagan Administration's Foreign Policy: Principle Versus
Pragmatism 574 Globalism 576 Anticommunism 579 Containment 581
Military Might and Interventionist Means 584
The Sources of Continuity in American Foreign Policy 588
The Problematic Future 595
Suggestions for Further Reading 597
 
 
Appendix: A Chronology of Selected Diplomatic Events, 1945-1986 598
 
References 627
 
Index 663
 
**
 

PREFACE

 

Has American foreign policy changed since 1945? If so, how, and with what consequences? What are the sources of American foreign policy? Do these sources promote policy change or inhibit it? These are the principal questions we seek to answer in American Foreign Policy: Pattern and Process.

 

The years since publication of the first edition of this book in 1979 have been turbulent ones for the United States. Many of the challenges the nation has faced seemed to call into question the wisdom of the conventional as­sumptions that have governed America's approach to the world since World War II. Yet, despite these challenges and the policy debates and adjustments they have stimulated, American foreign policy continues to be characterized by continuity. The thesis of the first edition of the book—that both the ends sought by American foreign policy makers and the means through which they have been pursued have become deeply entrenched patterns that have under­gone only remedial adjustments over the course of several decades—remains a compelling interpretation. Indeed, time continues to deal generously with it.

 

How does one account for such policy continuity? To probe this question, we continue in this edition of American Foreign Policy: Pattern and Process to uti­lize the pre-theoretical framework of the previous editions, which maintains that five factors—international, societal, governmental, role, and individual— collectively influence foreign policy objectives and the means chosen to real­ize them. The pre-theoretical framework organizes examination of both the in­ternational and domestic sources of American action abroad, and explores the linkages between political institutions and policy formulation processes, on the one hand, and policy outcomes, on the other. The framework thus facili­tates an examination of the past diplomatic record and provides a basis for an­ticipating the future. In speculating about the future in the concluding chapter of the book, we are encouraged by the fact that many of the predictions ad­vanced in the first and second editions have proven accurate, including espe­cially the evidence that the foreign policy of the Reagan administration has re­affirmed the postwar pattern of American foreign policy rather than deviating from it. Indeed, the events of the past decade have lent credence to the book's thesis and attest to the utility of the theoretical framework which structures and informs the analysis.

 

Although the thematic thrust and organizational framework of the earlier editions have been preserved, numerous changes have been made in this edi­tion. The evidence has been thoroughly updated and new literature incorpo­rated, and the coverage of several topics has been revised and expanded, while that of others has been shortened or dropped. Readers familiar with the first two editions of the book will quickly notice that the discussion of the in­struments of American foreign policy has been expanded with the addition of a new chapter focused on national security policy (chapter five). We continue to maintain the sixteen chapter format by merging into a single chapter (thir­teen) the treatment of role sources of American foreign policy. Other changes are spread throughout the book. They include examination of the challenge of international terrorism; the American foreign policy response to the Third World debt crisis; and treatment of the impact of the electronic media on pub­lic attitudes toward foreign policy. The role of the United States in the global food regime has been elaborated, while the coverage of its role and stake in the global oil regime, so prevalent an issue demanding of detailed analysis when the previous editions of the book were published, has been reduced. The re­treat from multilateralism evident in the policies of the Reagan administration is addressed in a variety of contexts, and the discussion of alternative interpre­tations of American foreign policy patterns has been sharpened and focused more clearly. Other changes are evident throughout, but undiminished is our commitment to relate the five sources of American foreign policy to its durable tenets captured in the themes of globalism, anticommunism, containment, military strength, and interventionism.

 

Many people have contributed to the development of the book and its evo­lution over nearly a decade. As the list of those to whom we are indebted con­tinues to grow beyond those who were explicitly acknowledged in the first and second editions, we run the risk of slighting some in our desire to thank all. William A. Clark, Mark J. DeHaven, Lucia Wren Rawls, and Barry Rich deserve special thanks for their contributions to the onerous technical tasks as­sociated with production of this edition. Others who have contributed in some special way to our thinking or who have otherwise made important con­tributions to the book as it has evolved over a decade now number in the dozens. We thank you collectively. Our appreciation is in no way diminished by this impersonal expression of our gratitude.

 

We also express our appreciation to Jean Smith, Peter Dougherty, Richard Steins, and Emily Berleth, our taskmasters at St. Martin's Press, for their con­tinued enthusiam for the book; to James B. Holderman and Albert Clubok, our valued colleagues and friends at our respective institutions, for their per­sonal support for our scholarly endeavors; and to our wives, Pamela and Bar­bara, to whom the book is dedicated.

Характеристики
В наличност:
Да
Език
английски
Автор
Charles W. Kegley, Eugene R. Wittkopf
Издателство
St. Martin's Press
Етикети
американска история и политика, международни отношения
Град
New York
Година
1987
Страници
681
Състояние
неизползвана книга
ЗАБЕЛЕЖКА
здрава и чиста книга с леко захабен външен вид
Националност
американска
Издание
трето
Корица
мека
Формат
голям
Ширина (мм)
165
Височина (мм)
235
Дебелина (мм)
27
Тегло (гр.)
921
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