Arrhythmia - A Guide to Clinical Electrocardiology

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Erik Sandoe  |  Bjarne Sigurd  (автори)

 

Издателство:   Publishing Partners Verlags GmbH
Език: английски език
Раздел: Медицински атласи
Етикети: кардиология

 

Твърда корица, голям формат  |  762 стр.  |  1401 гр.

(неизползвана книга в почти отлично състояние - леко захабен външен вид)

 

*

 

На задната корица:

 

Erik Sandoe

 

Cardiologist and lecturer of medicine. University of Copenhagen. Member of the Council on Clinical Cardiology of the International Society and Fed­eration of Cardiology. Vice President European Society of Cardiology 1976 -19SO.

Published on ECC. Stokes - Adams syn­drome, coronary care, resuscitation, variant angina and silent ischaemia.

Editor/author of several monographs and booklets: Congenital ventricular Septal Defects (1963); Symposium on Cardiac Arrhythmias, Elsinore (1970); Management of ventricular Tachycar­dia - Role of Mexiietine (1978); A Guide to Better Slides (1973); Management of Cardiac Arrest in the Hospi­tal (1980); Arrhythmia - Diagnosis and Management (1984).

 

Bjarne Sigurd

 

Cardiologist, Hykabing Falster County Hospital, Denmark. Fellow of Euro­pean Society of Cardiology, Vice Presi­dent of Danish Heart Foundation, Vice President of Danish Society of Cardi­ology 1982 - 1986.

Published on arrhythmias, Stokes-Adams disease, antiarrhythmic treat­ment, diuretics, angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Author/editor of the textbooks: Kllnisk Elektrokar-diografi (Clinical electrocardiography) (1980); Akut Myokardieinfarkt (Acute Myocardial Infarction) (1982); and Ar­rhythmia - Diagnosis and Management

(1984).

 

**

 

CONTENTS
 
 
Foreword V
Preface VII
Contents IX
 
 
Chapter 1
Fundamentals of electrocardiography 1
 
The myocardial cell 3
The conduction system of the heart 3
The two-chambered heart 4
AV conduction system 4
The action potential 5
Principles of electrocardiography 6
Calibration of the ECG 7
Measurement of heart rate 7
The isolated muscle strip experiment 7
Major deflections and principal time intervals of the ECG 11
The various ECG leads and their axes 12
Standard leads: I, II and III 13
Unipolar limb leads: aVR, aVL and aVF 15
Unipolar precordial leads: V,—V6 15
Three dimensional orientation of lead axes of the 12-leadECG 16
The P wave 1 8
The mean QRS axis 19
The deflections of the QRS complex 23
The QRST complex in the precordial leads 24
References 27
 
 
Chapter 2
The normal ECG 29
 
Sinus rhythm 30
Regular rhythm and heart rate within normal range 30
Normal AV and intraventricular conduction, normal duration of ventricular systole 31
Normal atrial activation 31
Normal ventricular activation 32
No sign of myocardial necrosis 33
Normal ventricular repolarization 33
References 34
 
 
Chapter 3
Cardiac arrhythmias 35
 
Cardiac arrhythmias 36
Arrhythmias involving abnormal impulse formation 36
Arrhythmias involving abnormal conduction (block) 38
Mechanism of abnormal impulse formation 38
Triggered activity 38
Re-entry 41
Fibrillation 42
Supraventricular arrhythmias: The QRS complex 45
Aberrant ventricular conduction 45
Supraventricular arrhythmias: The P wave 47
Supraventricular arrhythmias: AV conduction 49
Ventricular arrhythmias: The QRST complex 50
Ventricular arrhythmias: Atrial acivity 50
Which ECG leads should be recorded in tachycardia? 51
The oesophageal ECG 51
Capturing the ECG of an arrhythmia in the patient with few and unpredictable attacks 53
ECG leads for ECG monitoring 54
The electrophysiologic study 54
His bundle electrogram (HBE) 54
Sinus node recovery time (SNRT) 56
Programmed electrical stimulation (PES) 56
Electrophysiologic mapping 58
Who should be referred for electrophysiologic studies? 58
Ventricular late potentials 58
Aetiology of arrhythmias 60
Signs and symptoms 61
Cardiac arrest, sudden death and Stokes-Adams attacks 62
References 63
 
 
Chapter 4
Management of cardiac arrhythmias 67
 
When to treat and when not? 69
Search for tachycardia precipitating factors 69
Treatment of tachycardia and fibrillation 70
Vagal manoeuvres 70
Antiarrhythmic drugs 71
Specifity of antiarrhythmic drugs 73
Slowing of the ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation and flutter 74
Effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on the ECG 75
Side effects of antiarrhythmic drugs 76
Cardiac side effects 76
Non-cardiac side effects 79
Combined antiarrhythmic drug therapy 80
Digitalis 81
Mode of action 81
Indication 81
Pharmacology 81
Dosage 81
Side effects 82
The DC counter shock 82
Cardioversion 83
Indications for cardioversion 83
Pretreatment and precautions in cardioversion 83
Energy setting in cardioversion and defibrillation 83
Antitachycardia surgery 84
Catheter ablation of His bundle 85
The automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (AICD) 86
Antitachycardia pacemakers 87
When and how to treat block/bradycardia 87
Contraindications to pacemaker implantation 89
Pacing 89
Temporary pacing 90
Transthoracic pacing 90
External transvenous pacing 90
The implantable pacemaker 91
The pacemaker ECG 92
Pacemaker malfunction and the ECG 97
Atrial and ventricular pacemakers (AAI and VVI pacemakers) 97
The rate responsive (rate modulated) pacemaker 99
The dual chamber pacemaker 100
References 103
 
 
Chapter 5
Extrasystole, escape and parasystole 107
 
Extrasystole, escape and parasystole 108
Extrasystoles 108
ECG diagnosis 108
Differential diagnosis: Escape and parasystole 108
The postextrasystolic pause 110
Supraventricular extrasystoles 113
ECG diagnosis 113
Differential diagnosis 115
Symptoms 115
Aetiology 115
Prognosis 115
Management 115
Ventricular extrasystoles 116
ECG diagnosis 116
Differential diagnosis 116
Symptoms 117
Aetiology 117
Additional investigations 117
Prognosis 117
Management 118
 
Parasystole 121
ECG diagnosis 121
Aetiology, prognosis, management 121
References 122
 
 
Chapter 6
Tachycardia 123
 
Tachycardia 124
Supraventricular tachycardia 124
Differential diagnosis 129
Sinus tachycardia 131
ECG diagnosis 131
Symptoms 131
Aetiology 131
Additional investigations 131
Management 132
Atrial tachycardia 132
ECG diagnosis 132
Differential diagnosis 134
Symptoms 134
Aetiology 134
rrognosis 134
Additional investigations 134
Management 134
AV nodal tachycardia 134
ECG diagnosis 136
Differential diagnosis 136
Symtoms 136
Aetiology 137
Prognosis 137
Management 137
Multifocal supraventricular tachycardia 139
ECG diagnosis 139
Differential diagnosis 139
Aetiology 139
Prognosis 139
Management 139
Atrial flutter 141
ECG diagnosis 141
Differential diagnosis 143
rrognosis 143
Additional investigations 143
Symptoms 144
Aetiology 144
Management 145
Atrial fibrillation 147
ECG diagnosis 147
Symptoms 150
Aetiology 151
rrognosis 151
Additional investigations 151
Management 152
Ventricular tachycardia 154
ECG diagnosis 154
Differential diagnosis 156
Symptoms 156
Aetiology 156
Additional investigations 158
Prognosis 159
Management 159
Specific forms of ventricular tachycardia 163
Torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia 163
ECG diagnosis 163
Differential diagnosis 165
Symptoms 165
Aetiology 165
Prognosis 166
Management 170
Multiform ventricular tachycardia 171
ECG diagnosis 171
Differential diagnosis 171
Aetiology 171
Prognosis 172
Management 172
Bidirectional tachycardia 172
ECG diagnosis 172
Aetiology 173
Management 173
Ventricular tachycardia due to arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 173
ECG diagnosis 173
Differential diagnosis 173
Additional investigations 173
Management 173
Ventricular tachycardia in the otherwise healthy young individual 175
Repetitive monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (Gallavardin's tachycardia) 175
Management 175
Paroxysmal fascicular ventricular tachycardia 180
ECG diagnosis 180
Management 180
Effort induced ventricular tachycardia 180
ECG diagnosis 180
Differential diagnosis 180
Additional investigations 180
Management 180
Ventricular fibrillation 181
ECG diagnosis 181
Differential diagnosis 181
Symptoms 181
Aetiology 181
Prognosis 182
Management 183
References 184
 
 
Chapter 7
Pre-excitation 187
 
Pre-excitation 188
The Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome 188
ECG diagnosis and differential diagnosis 190
WPW pattern (ECG diagnosis) 190
WPW pattern (differential diagnosis) 194
WPW re-entry tachycardia (ECG diagnosis) 197
WPW re-entry tachycardia (differential diagnosis) 197
WPW atrial fibrillation and flutter (ECG diagnosis) 197
WPW atrial fibrillation and flutter (differential diagnosis) 197
Symptoms 200
Aetiology 200
Prognosis 200
Additional investigations 205
Management 205
Concealed WPW syndrome 207
ECG diagnosis and differential diagnosis 207
Symptoms, aetiology and prognosis 207
Additional investigations 207
Management 207
Short PR syndrome 209
ECG diagnosis 209
Differential diagnosis 209
Symptoms, aetiology, prognosis, additional investigations 209
Management 209
References 211
 
 
Chapter 8
Escape rhythm, accelerated rhythm, sinus bradycardia, irregular sinus rhythm and multifocal supraventricular rhythm 213
 
Escape rhythm 214
ECG diagnosis 214
Symptoms 214
Aetiology 214
Management 214
Accelerated rhythm 216
ECG diagnosis 216
Symptoms 216
Aetiology 216
Prognosis 217
Management 217
Sinus bradycardia and irregular sinus rhythm 218
ECG diagnosis 218
Differential diagnosis 218
Symptoms 218
Aetiology 219
Management 219
Multifocal supraventricular rhythm 219
ECG diagnosis 219
Aetiology, prognosis and management 219
References 220
 
 
Chapter 9
Intraventricular block 221
 
Intraventricular block 223
Fascicular block (FB) 224
ECG diagnosis 224
Differential diagnosis 224
Aetiology and prognosis 226
Bundle branch block (BBB) 226
ECG diagnosis 228
Differential diagnosis 232
Symptoms 232
Aetiology 232
Clinical significance and prognosis 233
Bundle branch block (BBB) in acute myocardial infarction 234
ECG diagnostic problems 235
Prognosis 235
Management 236
Rate dependent bundle branch block 240
Incomplete right bundle branch block 242
ECG diagnosis 242
Aetiology and prognosis 242
References 244
 
 
Chapter 10
Atrioventricular (AV) block 245
 
Atrioventricular (AV) block 247
ECG diagnosis 248
ECG diagnosis of site of AV block 253
Symptoms 253
Aetiology of AV block 256
Prognosis 256
Management 256
AV block in acute myocardial infarction 257
Management 258
Stokes-Adams syndrome 262
ECG diagnosis 262
Differential diagnosis 264
Symptoms 264
Aetiology 265
Prognosis 268
Management 268
Pacemaker implantation 268
Congenital AV block 270
AV block in the asymptomatic individual 273
References 275
 
 
Chapter 11
Sinoatrial (SA) block and sinus arrest 277
 
Sinoatrial (SA) block and sinus arrest 279
ECG diagnosis 280
Differential diagnosis 282
Symptoms 282
Aetiology 282
Prognosis 283
Management 283
Sick sinus syndrome 286
ECG diagnosis 286
Differential diagnosis 286
Symptoms 288
Aetiology 288
Prognosis 288
Management 289
References 290
 
 
Chapter 12
Digitalis and the ECG 291
 
"Digitalis effects" on the ECG 292
Digitalis intoxication 292
Digitalis induced arrhythmias 293
Differential diagnosis of digitalis induced arrhythmias 294
Management of acute serious digoxin intoxication 295
References 296
 
 
Chapter 13
Electrolytes and the ECG 297
 
Electrolyte disturbances and the ECG 298
Hyperkalaemia 298
Management 298
Hypokalaemia 300
Management 300
Hypernatraemia and hyponatraemia 302
Hypomagnesaemia 302
Management 302
Hypercalcaemia 302
Hypocalcaemia 302
Acidosis 302
Management 302
References 304
 
 
Chapter 14
ECG interpretation in sinus rhythm and supraventricular arrhythmia 305
 
Diagnostic limitations of the ECG in ventricular pre-excitation, bundle branch block and ventricular arrhythmia 307
Atrial enlargement 307
The normal sinus P wave 308
Left atrial enlargement 308
Right atrial enlargement 309
Ventricular hypertrophy 310
The normal QRST complex 310
Left ventricular hypertrophy 310
Right ventricular hypertrophy 312
Combined hypertrophy 312
Myocardial infarction 312
The Q-wave infarction 316
The abnormal Q wave 317
Reciprocal changes 318
Location of the infarction 318
Complication with bundle branch block 318
ST segment elevation and the deep symmetrical negative T wave 318
Non-Q-wave infarction 323
Myocardial ischaemia 326
Effort angina (stable angina) 326
Exercise electrocardiography 326
Unstable angina 333
Prinzmetal's variant angina
(vasospastic angina) 333
Silent myocardial ischaemia 336
Transitory T wave and/or ST segment changes after an attack of tachycardia 338
Acute pulmonary embolism 340
Pericarditis 343
Myocarditis 345
Cardiomyopathy 345
Myxoedema and the ECG 350
Brain damage and the ECG 350
The pacemaker T wave syndrome in ventricular pacing 350
Mitral valve prolapse 350
Neuromyopathic disorders 354
Connective tissue disease 354
Chest deformities 354
Obesity 354
Pregnancy 354
Dextrocardia 354
Hypothermia 356
Miscellaneous causes of ST segment and T wave changes 356
References 359
Index 361

 

 

 

Характеристики
В наличност:
Да
Език
английски
Автор
Erik Sandoe, Bjarne Sigurd
Издателство
Publishing Partners Verlags GmbH
Етикети
кардиология
Град
Bingen, Germany
Година
1991
Страници
373
Състояние
неизползвана книга
ЗАБЕЛЕЖКА
книга в почти отлично състояние - леко захабен външен вид
Корица
твърда
Формат
голям
Ширина (мм)
220
Височина (мм)
245
Дебелина (мм)
27
Тегло (гр.)
1359
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